E-G || H-K
P-U || V-Z
A. “Anna’s Conduct in Aeneid 4.” Vergilius 16 (1970)
on Vergil’s gift for addressing both readers enthralled with linguistics,
as well as those who prefer the prolonged task of acquainting with the
legendary facets. Barrett claims that Vergil’s allusion to legends
through Anna, Dido’s sister, appeals to this devoted reader, and he offers
an interpretation of Anna’s four monologues in Aeneid 4. The article
suggests the interpretation of Anna as a brief lover to Aeneas during his
stay at Carthage, and suggests Dido’s perception of these events, despite
the queen’s mental state.
Benario, Janice M. “Dido
and Cleopatra.” Vergilius 16 (1970): 2-6.
A study of the
figures of Vergil’s Dido and the Horace’s Cleopatra of Ode 1.37.
Comparison includes a brief discussion of differences, but mainly focuses
on the similarities of the two queens, particularly regarding the themes
of madness and suicide and their status as powerful, female enemies of
Rome. Issues of intertextuality are covered briefly.
Bolton, M.Catherine. “The
Isolating Effect of Sola in Heroides 10.” Phoenix 48
of the nuances and connotations of sola--the idea of the solitary woman--a
theme which occurs in both the Dido episode in Aeneid 4 and in the
Dido letter of Heroides 7. The analysis focuses primarily
on the Ariadne letter of Heroides 10, but the implications of the
occurrence of sola in the Dido letter are discussed. Themes examined
include abandonment, loneliness, solitude, isolation, guilt, recrimination,
emptiness, and desolation.
Casali, Sergio. “Facta
Impia (Vergil, Aeneid 4.596-9).” Classical Quarterly 49
of the conventional view that the use of facta impia in Aeneid 4.496
refers to the “impious deeds” of Dido. Argues that, based on the
context in which facta impia appears, the phrase must logically apply to
the deeds of Aeneas, not to Dido’s deeds. Includes a discussion,
centered on the account of Aeneas’ escape from Troy, and the truthfulness
Commager, Steele. “Fateful
Words: Some Conversations in Aeneid 4.” Arethusa 14
use of fatum and related words, his propensity for etymological word play,
and the use of words with double meanings. Asserts that Vergil’s
poem provides a view of the realm of the gods and the realm of human beings
which allows the narrative to be read as the founding myth of an imperial
empire, but not without profound awareness of the human cost.
Covi, Madeline C. “Dido
in Vergil’s Aeneid.” CJ 60 (1964) 56-60.
short article, which offers an alternative explanation for Dido’s impending
ruin in Book 4. Covi suggests that Dido’s destruction results not
from her human behavior in falling in love with Aeneas at the hands of
two very powerful goddesses, but because of her “puritan conscience.”
After Dido has become infatuated with Aeneas, the grief and guilt following
the surrender of the queen destroy her. Covi portrays Dido as Vergil’s
tool for symbolizing the classical sin of fervor conquering logic, and
suggests that the poet was forced to destroy Dido at her own hands due
to this immorality.
Desmond, Marilynn. “When
Dido Reads Vergil: Gender and Intertextuality in
7.” Helios 20 (1993) 56-68.
article that describes Dido in Heroides 7as an active reader of
Vergil’s Aeneid. In this sense, she portrays the texts as
representing opposing viewpoints, with Vergil’s third-person narrative
being more objective, and Ovid’s first-person perspective as self-interested.
Desmond’s article depicts Dido’s ignorance of fate as eventually leading
to the queen’s destruction. The author also suggests that Ovid’s
7 was written to produce closure to the Aeneid by allowing the queen
to state her position. She offers a caveat to the reader of both
the Aeneid and Heroides 7 as she accuses Ovid of non-parallel
structure to the original Aeneid, as Vergil’s depiction of the Dido
myth is far more metaphorical than Ovid’s direct response.
Drake, H.A. “Why Dido?”
Ancient World 31 (2000) 38-45.
An inquiry into
Vergil’s focus on the Carthaginian queen in the midst of a description
of Rome’s founding; specifically, Drake asks why Vergil so obviously sympathizes
with the woman who represents Carthage, the republic’s greatest enemy.
The author asserts that comparisons of Dido with other enemy’s of the state,
such as Cleopatra or Circe, are “superficial at best,” as Dido was not
able to become a barricade to Aeneas as Cleopatra and Circe became to their
respective lovers. The article offers a great deal of description
regarding Dido’s fall as symbolic of the third Punic war, as well as Dido’s
prophecy of Hannibal, one of the republic’s most formidable adversaries.
Drake’s article also offers the reader a slightly unorthodox division of
the text and a table illustrating of his classifications.
“The Death of Dido.” Classical Journal, 72 (1976-77): 129-33.
issue of Dido’s funeral pyre, and looks at why Vergil employed this method
to dispose of his heroine. Discussion of the conventional modes of
literary suicide, especially the suicide of queens, is presented.
Argues that in addition to fulfilling the literary theme of burning, which
recurs throughout Aeneid 4, Vergil may be alluding to the death
of the last queen of Carthage, the wife of Hasdrubal, upon a pyre.
Estevez, Victor A. “Queen
and City: Three Similes in Aeneid 4.” CP 77 (1982)
An analysis of
the three similes found in Aeneid 4 as a symbolic representation
and foreshadowing for Carthage’s inevitable destruction. All three
similes involve Dido; the first describes the stag hunt in which Aeneas
wounds the queen, the second compares the madness of Dido to Venus, and
the third emphasizes the fall of the city. Estevez offers a table
with explicit comparisons from one simile to the next, and indicates that
the solidity formed by the rhetorical similarities directly illustrates
the city’s foretold devastation.
Feldherr, Andrew. “Putting
Dido on the Map: Genre and Geography in Virgil’s
32 (1999): 85-122.
of the relationship of the geography of the Vergilian underworld in Aeneid
6 and the coherence of Vergil’s text. Contains a discussion of the similarities
in the Roman use of geography in the Augustan age as “a schema of imperium”
and Virgil’s construction of the geography of the lovers’ area of the underworld.
Argues that Vergil’s composition of the underworld resists being represented
objectively (i.e., mapped), ”as his narrative resists the weight of epic
authority by the introduction of elegiac elements.
Galinsky, Karl. “The Aeneid
as a Guide to Life.” Augustan Age 7 (1987) 161-173.
speech presented by Karl Galinsky; the speech is a humorous discussion
of the Aeneid and the study of Latin in general, as well as the
epic’s applicability to modern day values. Galinsky attributes the
effectiveness to the poem’s obsession with morality and values, an obsession
that has been sustained throughout time. The speech also addresses
modern controversies surrounding the Aeneid, such as the possibility
that Vergil wrote the epic as a critique of the Augustan reign.
Galinsky, Karl. “Was Ovid
a Sliver Latin Poet?” ICS 14 (1989) 69-88.
A query regarding
the modern reputation of Ovid as an inferior poet to Vergil and Horace.
The work details the value placed on Ovidian work before the Renaissance,
and the loss of respect incurred by the poet’s work in more modern times.
Although Galinsky focuses particularly on Ovid’s Metamorphoses, the article
is relevant in understanding Ovid as an interpreter and respondent to Vergil’s
Gross, Nicholas P. “Rhetorical
Wit and Amatory Persuasion in Ovid.” CJ 74
A reprimand directed
at Classics scholars for underrating the value of Ovid’s works, including
the Heroides. Part II of the description of Ovid’s rhetorical
skill includes an evaluation of Dido in Heroides 7, including Dido’s
propensity to embellish her anguish at her abandonment. Gross also
explains Dido’s self-importance as comedic, and uncharacteristic of a traditional
Roman woman. The classicist argues against interpreting the epistle
as histrionic; Gross claims that Dido’s melodramatic behavior is Ovid’s
purposeful and successful attempt at humor.
P. “Women as Same and Other in Classical Roman Elite.” Helios
An inquiry into
the role of women as reflected in literary and prose sources about real
people and events. Discusses the limitations imposed on the study
by the source material available, which is written, almost exclusively,
by male members of the Roman elite or by male authors addressing that class.
Includes an examination the themes of “women as same and other” in the
work of the female Roman elegist, Sulpicia. Brief discussion of Dido
and the Aeneid.
Harrison, E.L. “The Tragedy
of Dido.” A study of the elements evident in the epic.
Links the Dido
story in Aeneid 4 to Greek tragedy by a comparison of allusions
and generic conventions. Concludes that the epic is not subsumed by tragedy,
but retains its epic force.
Horsfall, N.M. “Dido
in the Light of History.” In Oxford Readings in Vergil's ”
S.J. Harrison, ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990. 27-144.
in Proceedings of the Vergil Society 13 (1973-4): 1-13. An examination
of the effect of the historical hostility between Rome and Carthage on
the Aeneid. Argues that unlike the characterizations of her
literary antecedents in Greek literature, the characterization of Dido
is informed by Roman history regarding Carthage and by racial prejudice.
Includes a discussion of Roman literary antecedents, especially Naevius.
Jacobson, Howard. “Heroides
7: Dido.” In Ovid’s Heroides. Princeton: Princeton
Press, 1974, 76-93.
An analysis of
Ovid’s allusions to Aeneid 4 in Heroides 7. Discusses
Ovid’s use of the rhetoric of persuasion as a tool employed to vindicate
Dido. Contains an evaluation of the poem’s technical merit.
Kennedy, Duncan F. “The
Epistolary Mode and the First of Ovid’s Heroides.”
Quarterly 34 (1984): 413-22.
of the implications of Ovid’s choice of epistolary form as a way to develop
drama in the Heroides. Focuses on the double epistles
(i.e., 16-21), but includes a brief discussion of the Dido letter.
An analysis of the Penelope letter contains examples of ways in which Ovid
exploits the form of the epistle for dramatic effect.
Kopff, E. Christian. “Dido
and Penelope.” Philologus 111 (1988) 244-248.
discussion of Dido’s similarity to Penelope, Odysseus’ wife in Homer’s
Odyssey. Kopff acknowledges opposing positions that place Dido as
an obstacle to Aeneas’ goal, parallel to the female barriers that slowed
Odysseus’ return to his wife and son. The author describes Dido as
a character identical to Penelope, in that she is Aeneas’ equal and his
true love; however, Dido is placed in the middle of the journey, while
Odysseus’ Penelope is placed at the end.
“A Comparison of the Treatment by Vergil and by Ovid of the
Myth.” CW 23 (1929) 41-44.
the comparison presents an interpretation the Dido myth in the Aeneid
and Heroides 7 as tainted by the respective author’s background.
The article presents Vergil as refined, and his insights into the myth
as pure, while Ovid, who is seen as far more coarse, presents the angry
and vengeful construal of the story. The treatment provides an insightful
representation of the lives and repute of both Vergil and Ovid, and their
respective positions in society.
Miller, Paul Allen. “Sive
Deae Seu Sint Dirae Obscenaeque Volucres.” Arethusa 22
of the Aeneid as written “for and about men.” Despite the
biases present within the culture of Vergil and the Aeneid text,
the poet’s discussion of feminine characters is impossible to disregard.
Miller maintains that awareness of traditional Roman gender roles are necessary
for the text of the Aeneid to be interpreted; however, the representation
of females in Aeneid, specifically Venus, Juno, and Dido, deviate
greatly from the normal characteristics attributed to and expected of the
women in Vergil’s era.
Monti, Richard C. “Fides
and the Right Hand.” Chap. 1 in The Dido Episode and
Roman Social and Political Values in the Epic. Leiden: E.J.
Looks at the
tradition of Dido as an abandoned woman modeled after Appolonius’ Medea
and at Vergil’s revision of this tradition by his inclusion of a political
dynamic, in addition to the traditional romantic entanglement, in the relationship
of Dido and Aeneas. Discussion centers on Dido’s evocation of the Roman
sense of political obligation in her lament at Aeneas’ departure in Aeneid
4. Examines Vergil’s use of fides and dextra, “the right hand,” in
the context of the relationship of Dido and Aeneas, and explores in detail
the meanings attached to these themes in the context of Roman socio-political
values in the late Republic and Augustan periods.
Murgia, Charles E. “Dido’s
Puns.” CP 82 (1987) 50-59.
An analysis of
the non-humorous double meaning of several statements made by Dido in Aeneid
4. The article addresses the historical acceptance of Romulus and
Remus’ founding of Rome, and describes the twins as born 300 years after
the rule of Ascanius. Murgia focuses his paper on the statement extremam
hanc oro veniam (misere sororis), quam mihi cum dederis cumulatam morte
remittam, and the dual interpretation of morte as an ablative of time at
which or as an ablative of means. The author refers to Dido’s promise
to Anna as filled, but not in a manner expected by the original interpretation
of her statement.
O’Hara, James J. “Dido
as ‘Interpreting Character’ at Aeneid 4.56-66.” Arethusa
A study describing
Dido’s misinterpretation of the “quivering entrails” seen in Book 4.
O’Hara addresses other Classics scholars in his article, reminding these
academics that opposing viewpoints are necessary and may help to develop
the field. The article also offers a short discussion of Books 8
and 9 as a comparative tool, useful for analyzing Book 4. O’Hara
also unwraps the relationship of Anna and Dido, as well as the dual meanings
of the sisters’ conversation before the sacrificial rites of Book 4.
The author’s approach is grounded, and he thinks highly of Vergil, stating,
“one of the most important ways for us to avoid imposing our own views
on Vergil is to grant that Vergil describes things the way he does because
he wants to describe things the way he does.” O’Hara’s analysis of
Book 4 offers the reader a methodology for analysis, as well as the interpretation
O’Hara, James J. “Vergil’s
Best Reader? Ovidian Commentary on Vergilian
Wordplay.” CJ 91 (1996) 255-76.
regarding the intertextuality of Vergilian and Ovidian works. O’Hara
describes the recognition of this wordplay as necessary to the interpretation
of texts written by both poets. The author notes that each poet explicitly
refers to their respective etymology in their respective works, although
Vergil tends to do so through his characters, while Ovid prefers to utilize
his position as author to allude to his wordplay. Despite the fact
that the article does not address Heroides 7 directly, that Ovid
is more explicit in his wordplay than Vergil is valuable when analyzing
the text. O’Hara refers to Ovid as a “meticulous” reader of Vergil,
and the author acknowledges that Ovid was able to take pleasure in aspects
of Vergil’s work that are undervalued in modern times.
“Ambiguity and Irony: The Last Resort?” Helios 21 (1994) 63
A response to
the critical debate about whether a “correct reading” of the Aeneid
is achievable. Argues that ambiguity is an inherent feature of Virgil’s
text. Addresses problems of interpretation as illustrated by the
suicide of Dido in Aeneid 4.
Phillips, Jane A. “Juno
in Aeneid 4.693-705.” Vergilius 23 (1977) 30-33.
A treatment of
Dido’s relationship with Juno, who is devoted to the queen as a result
of the goddess’ support for Carthage. The article discusses Dido’s
bitterness at not having conceived a child by Aeneas. Phillips also
describes Juno’s responsibility as the goddess who presides over childbirth.
When Juno pities Dido in death, she intervenes as a substitute for intervening
in Dido’s delivery of a child after proceeding over her marriage.
Because Dido ends her life early, Juno will never be permitted to perform
this responsibility. The article also examines Vergil’s symbolic
discussion of birth and death as noticeably similar.
Schmidt, Ernst A. “The
Meaning of Vergil’s Aeneid: American and German
94 (2001) 145-71.
An essay examining
cultural and political influences imposed on interpreters of Vergil’s Aeneid.
The article specifically treats Harvard’s American interpretation of the
classic, and contrasts this viewpoint with that of modern German construal.
Schmidt describes the American perspective as pessimistic, and the German
perception as patriotic and traditional. The final section of Schmidt’s
essay provides an exhaustive analysis of Vergil’s Book 4 as an objective
and impartial representation of the world.
Segal, Charles. “Dido’s
Hesitation in Aeneid 4.” CW 84 (1990) 1-12.
an illustration of Vergil’s ability to condense multiple meaning within
one line of his poetry. Segal particularly focuses on Dido’s hesitation
before leaving to meet Aeneas and his men. The author acknowledges
past interpretations of Dido’s delay, including that of Servius and his
followers, which states that the queen paused to “primp” before leaving
to meet the warrior. Segal notes unsubstantiated tone of male superiority
in this interpretation, specifically as Vergil chose to leave the description
of Dido’s hesitation ambiguous. The author then draws comparisons
to other delays within the Aeneid, and concludes that Dido pauses
as a demonstration against the goddesses who control her, as the queen’s
only potential rebellion against powers which dwarf her own.
Skinner, Marilyn. “The
Last Encounter of Dido and Aeneas: Aen. 6.450-476.”
28 (1982): 12-18.
of the moral ambiguities embodied in Dido’s meeting with Aeneas in the
underworld. Examines structural and linguistic patterns, and contends
that the characters’ roles in the confrontation scene in Aeneas 4 are reversed
in the underworld. Points to the moral dilemma contained in the possibility
of human choice.
Smith, R.A. “A Lock and
A Promise: Myth and Allusion in Aeneas’ Farewell to
Dido in Aeneid
6.” Phoenix 48 (1993) 305-12.
elaborates on various allusions to Catullus’ invita, o regina, tuo de vertice
cessi as Aeneas addresses the fallen Carthaginian queen in the underworld.
The author of the journal article accuses Aeneas to be metaphorically “equal
to the sword” which kills Dido. The writing also contains an in depth
analysis into the mythical associations of the cutting of Dido’s hair just
before her death at the end of Book 4, and the symbolic implications of
both the lock of hair and Aeneas himself being estranged from Dido by means
of a sword.
Smith, R. A. “The Furtherance
of the Tradition: Codified Readings.” In Poetic
and Poetic Embrace in Ovid and Vergil. Ann Arbor: University
Press, 1997, 71-135.
discussion of intertextuality in Ovid and Vergil primarily, but includes
references to the works of numerous Greek and Roman writers. Uses
a hermeneutic critical approach influenced by the philosophy of Martin
Buber. Contains a discussion of the complex web of intertextuality
between the Medea of Appolonius (as informed by Euripides) and Ovid’s Medea
(as informed by Ennius), as shaped by Virgil’s Dido, who was also influenced
by Ennius and Appolonius.
Smith, R. A. “Fantasy,
Myth, and Love Letters: Text and Tale in Ovid’s
27, 2 (1994): 247-73.
An analysis of
the interplay of intertextual, psychological, and contextual elements in
the Heroides and their effect on the personae Ovid employs in the
poems. Contains a study of the allusions to Aeneid 4 in the
Dido letter of Heroides 7. Addresses the effect of the interaction
of epistolary and elegiac genres, and examines the interplay of genders
with respect to the poet, his poetic personae, and the intended recipients
of the letters. Asserts that Ovid may have created a new genre in
the Heroides: “a genre of conflict and synthesis.”
Starks, John H., Jr. “Fides
Aeneia: The Transference of Punic Stereotypes in the
Classical Journal 94 (1999): 255-83.
history of Roman fear and hatred of Carthage in the Roman literary tradition
and the effect of prejudice on Roman patriotic sentiment. Outlines
the function of Punic stereotypes in Vergil’s creation of Dido, particularly
with reference to the attitude toward Carthage maintained in the popular
imagination of his intended audience. Also discusses readings of
Dido found in ancient sources, from Ovid to the Christian moralists.
Starr, Raymond J. “An Epic
of Praise: Tiberius Claudius Donatus and Vergil’s
Classical Antiquity 11 (1992) 159-73.
Interpretationes Vergilianae of Tiberius Claudius Donatus--a paraphrase
of the Aeneid with extensive commentary—which has been read as an
indication of Virgil’s view of Augustus and Rome in the Augustan age.
Argues that Donatus’ text is informed by “a praise theory” which caused
the author to “overread passages [of the Aeneid] to make them praise
Aeneas.” Contends that the rhetoric Donatus uses renders the
characterization of Aeneas flat and reduces the Aeneid to a one-dimensional,
Starr, Raymond J. “Explaining
Dido to Your Son: Tiberius Claudius Donatus on
Dido.” CJ 87 (1991) 25-34.
of Roman interpretation of the Aeneid. The article provides
insight into the personality of Tiberius Claudius Donatus, and Roman who
wrote a manuscript 1200 modern pages in length to explain Book 4 of the
to his son. The most relevant aspects of his work regard the Roman
interpretation of women; Starr particularly emphasizes Donatus’ “limited
expectations of women in general” as well as regarding females as “vulnerable.”
Although Starr remarks that Donatus’ interpretation is at times superficial,
he emphasizes the Roman’s passion for the story and for the humanness of
Sullivan, J.P. “Dido and
the Representation of Women in Vergil’s Aeneid.”
Worlds of the Poet: New Perspectives on Vergil. R.M. Wilhelm
eds. Detroit, MI 1992. 64-73.
of ambiguity in Vergil’s portrayal of female characters in the Aeneid.
Argues against a reading of the representations of women in the epic as
latent misogyny by pointing out the complexity and subtly of the characterizations.
Provides an outline of the ways in which Vergil sets up the heroic ideal—with
women characters portrayed as obstacles of the heroic quest and trophies
of the hero’s successes—and then systematically undermines the tradition,
often by the subversive use of allusion.
“Humor and Humanity in Ovid’s Heroides.” Arethusa 9
on the undervalued Heroides; the discussion contains a section (Section
III) specifically analyzing the rhetorical merit, as well as the humor,
in Ovid’s Heroides 7. Ovid’s Dido is described by Vessey as
more rational and self-absorbed than Vergil’s Dido; he most interestingly
points out the potential for symbolic interpretations in Dido’s reference
to “acts of kindness,” which Vessey believes are a euphemism for sexual
favors. The article also briefly compares the Dido epistle to that
of the other heroines in the Heroides.
Weber, Clifford, “Dido
and Circe Dorees: Two Golden Women in Aeneid 1.698 and
Classical Journal 94 (1999) 317-27.
A detailed analysis
of the use of the word aurea in Aeneid 1.698. Uses metrical,
syntactical, and literary evidence to argue that aurea applies to Dido.
Contends that the use of the epithet connects Dido to female characters
of the elegiac tradition of love poetry.